Butane represents a mosaic from various people living in the valleys isolated from each other and from world around by a huge massif.
Various ethnic groups are also distributed according to distinctions in environment. The population Butana can be divided into three main ethnic groups in spite of the fact that in places these distinctions are almost not visible.
The central Himalaya region is populated with the people a bkhotiya, Mongoloid type. In the ethnic relation a bkhotiya are close to Tibetans. Bkhotiya, or Dzong-he, "language of fortresses" which they speak, is considered one of dialects of the Tibetan language. It is official language of the country. They grow up cattle and go in for agriculture. Their dwellings are disseminated through rather wide territory.
In the east of Butane and peripheries mainly there live Sharchopy, Indo-Mongoloid type. At sharchop other dialect - бумтанг. They say that they appeared in these parts before the others, and perhaps even always there lived. It is difficult to find out their real origin, but there is a version that they came from Tibet long ago.
The South of Butane is occupied mainly by Nepalese immigrants (гурунг, paradise and to a limb), the farmers who populated this territory at the end of the 19th century. They brought Hinduism and Nepalese language which the most part of the population of the Southern Butane still continues to speak in Butane. They were widely settled there and now make 25-35% of the population of the country. There is no essential mixture of Hinduism and the Buddhism as it occurs in Nepal. On the contrary, there is a tendency to their division and preservation of traditions. After 1985 thousands of natives of Nepal who protested against a discrimination of the authorities were sent from the country.
Especially it is worth allocating the small people of a drokp, tribes of the wandering shepherds. A place of their dwelling - the Northern Himalaya Zone (over 3000 meters). With the herds they make seasonal migrations on distances to 150 km. These tribes carry out the most part of year in tents from a black yak. In a cold season they take cover in stone houses which also use as storages of the supplies. Generally a drokpa eat yak milk, and made of it cheese and oil. In addition to it, they eat barley and winter wheat and some root crops which are grown up on small fields.
The majority of settlements of Butane - the small villages from four-five farmsteads disseminated through intermountain valleys. Houses solid and beautiful from thick logs with a carving and an ornament. Usually the house consists of two floors with an attic on which vegetables dry. The favorable place and time of construction of the house is defined by the astrologer. Indoors a minimum of furniture and it is rather cold. In each butansky house there is a room for meditations.
In the summer the majority of butanets like to work in the garden and a kitchen garden. They go to winter time to be treated to warm sources, visit relatives and friends and go to pilgrimage on the holy sites, to India and Nepal.