Бутан - страна Громового Дракона
Kingdom of Bhutan. Butane history
История

Many centuries the world surrounding this country didn't know about its existence and, especially, didn't know its name - Butane. Its sublime and unattainable borders were shrouded in an impenetrable veil of mysteriousness. The Tibetan chronicles of the 18th eyelid refer to a set of names, such as "the Hidden Sacred Country", "the Southern Valley of Curative Herbs" and "the Lotosovy Garden of Gods". However butanets always called the country Druk Eul, or "the Kingdom of the Thunderous Dragon".

In the 8th century (is more exact in 747 g) the great spiritual teacher Padmasambkhava, better known as the Guru Rimpoche in Butane, arrived to Butane from Suat's state (Swat, nowadays Pakistan). It extended Buddhist doctrine to these lands, having put seeds of culture which prospers still.

The most considerable event in the history of Butane is considered arrival from Tibet Ngavanga Namguyel's (Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyel) Shabdrunga in 1616. It was the first person who united separate parts of Butane under the uniform power. Actually, from this point it is possible to call Butane the country. It is interesting that he made it at the age of only 23 years.

"Шабдрунг" means "to his feet everyone stretches". In 1644 Butane was attacked by numerous army of the leader of Great Moguls Gusha Khan (Gushi Khan). Its attack was reflected by Shabdrung. In 1647 he attacked again. And again I suffered defeat. After that Shabdrung suppressed numerous wars between feudal lords and made the Buddhist school of Kagyyup predominating Drukp's direction. For 35-year board of Shabdrunga the system of national management which principles work still was installed. The set of well protected fortresses, dzong was constructed. The majority of dzong which can be seen at Butane visit, were constructed at the time of board of Shabdrunga. Of course, some reconstruction was made.

As a matter of fact, modern Butane with system of dzong and monasteries realizes the project of Shabdrunga. The political system of Shabdrunga in which the power was divided by the Supreme lamas and administration of dzong, was replaced on a monarchy, and now lamas take considerably smaller part in government. However, kings of Butane show high professionalism and cope with the work perfectly.

История Шабдрунг installed dual system of board. Druk Dezi (Druk Desi) personified the secular power, and Dzhe Henpo (Je Khenpo) - spiritual. However, after his death and before reincarnation, rivalry between lords and race for power began. It cast Butane in days of a distemper, proceeding till 1907, before accession to Gonsar Yudzhen Vanchguk's (Gongsar Ugyen Wangchuk) throne. Actually, it was the first king Butana. Now the power began to be descended. Like great Shabdrungu, Vanchguk conducted the uniting policy. It entered system of regional governors (heads of administrations of dzong). On December 17, 1907 (A national holiday Butana) Yudzhen Vanchguk was unanimously chosen as all Regional Governors and the spiritual power as the governor. He was crowned, as Druk Gualpo - the Precious Governor Naroda Drakona.

In 1910 Butane agreed to establishment of the British control of foreign policy instead of the promise received from Great Britain not to interfere with internal affairs of the country. In 1949 India became the independent state and signed the treaty of friendship with Butane which supported the same principles of relationship, as with Great Britain.

In 1950 the Chinese army took Tibet under control. After suppression of revolt of the Tibetan monks, China the butanskikh of lands declared territorial claims for part. Butane urgently strengthened the defensive relations with India, and along northern border the Indian garrisons were placed. After that territorial claims of China were removed. India constructed the roads connecting it to Butane that became the end of historical isolation of the kingdom.

The current king, the fourth in generation monarch, Druk Gualpo Zhigme Singuye Vanchguk (Druk Gyalpo Jigme Singye Wangchuk) was crowned in 1974. From the beginning of its board to the country doors for tourists began to open.

With the management of the country it is helped by the National assembly (Tsongdu) created in 1953 which in 1961 acquired the nominal right to displace and elect the king.

Relations with the outside world

The Indian emissary is responsible for foreign policy of Butane. It controls all relations between India and Butane. Since 1971 Butane - the member of the UN. In 90 diplomatic missions of Butane at the UN in Geneva and New York were organized, and also embassies in India (New Delhi), Bangladesh (Dhaka) and consulate in Kuwait.

The Russian Embassy and in general isn't present the Russian establishments in Butane.



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